Zanjan zinc Khales Sazan industries company has been established and started its activity in four phases in a land area measuring approximately 8 hectares .With employing 450 experienced and skilled employees this manufacturing complex has started its activity with following objectives .
The oldest piece is made of Betty, which was obtained in archaeological excavations in Dordosh in the Transylvania region, with a composition of 87.52 percent Zn, 41.11 percent lead and 1.07 percent iron. . In the ruins of Cameros, destroyed 500 BC, a bracelet has been obtained that has been filled. 200 years after the Roman times, the Romans became familiar with rice, shaping it with a melting and rejuvenating method in a furnace and with copper. During this process, zinc oxide was first regenerated. The vapor then penetrated the dermas, and with increasing temperature, the product melted and rice was produced with a uniform composition.
Zinc in the form of zinc oxide from the 12th century was produced in India and later produced and used in the 17th century in China. In about 1730, zinc plating came from China to England, and in 1739, a distillation license was registered, and from 1743 to 1740, a zinc mill with a production of 20 tons per year was constructed in Bristol. In this process, a mixture of carbon and zinc oxide ore was used in a furnace that was embedded in the bottom of the tube and evaporated in the liquid tube and collected outside the furnace.
Originally produced in the United States for the first time in 1835 in Washington. In 1880, zinc hydrometallurgy was commonly used to produce zinc sulfate and to use it to produce Lithapone pigment. By the 1880s, sulfur dioxide was not much noticeable, and in Europe, most of the chalamine was used to produce zinc. However, during the years 1881, the filtration process was modified and SO2 gas was produced at high percentages, and thus sulfur rocks were placed in the circuit of production.
History of Zinc in Iran:
The oldest mineralogical records in Iran are related to the Firouze Neyshabour mine and the Celtic Zara copper mine dating back to 4-5,000 years BC.
All activities of lead and zinc mines were almost antiquated before World War II. In the 1930s, German experts brought to Iran new mining methods, especially in the field of metal mines. At this time, the lead and zinc mines of the Nakhlak, the Black Sea, Anarak, Bibi Shahranoi and several other mines were active. Lead and Zinc mines were well-developed in the years 1946 to 1975. The first modern zinc-zinc concentrating plant was exploited in 1340 with the help of a French company in Lakan, Central Province. From 1962 to 1993, the mines on Iran were exported out of the country after processing as concentrates. After the imposed war, due to the existence of the Anguran mine, the views of domestic experts focused on the acquisition of Zinc metal technology. In this regard, extensive national research was conducted to obtain zinc ingot technology from Anguran concentrate and ore and lead to the production of the first zinc ingot On a pilot scale in 1371.
Since 1993, zinc ingot production has started at Iran Mining Processing Company (Zanjan Melting Unit), and since then, with the construction and commissioning of a new unit called Roein-e-Shams in Zanjan, zinc ingot production in the country has risen along the way. Made This unit has mainly been engaged in the production of zinc ingot by using internal acquisition technology. Currently, the Khosse Zazan Company on Zanjan, as the largest bullion manufacturing plant in the Middle East, is owned by the previous shareholders of Roein Sharms, a leading zinc industry in the country.
Physico chemical characteristics:
The metal on the fourth and twelfth intervals (IIB) of the periodic table of elements, with an atomic number of 30, and an atomic number of 68.38, has a density of 133.7. The melting point and its boiling point are equal to 433.49 and 907 degrees Celsius, and their degree of hardness is 2.5 in Mohs scale. This metal contains natural and radioactive isotopes. On a pure, soft, white metal with the ability to polish blue-gray bayjalia, and soluble in aqueous solutions, and insoluble. The most common form of oxidation of this metal is 2+.
On a natural material that exists on the earth's crust, in addition to what is found in the earth's crust in the form of soil and rock, there is also air, water and the biosphere, plants, animals and the human body also have metal itself. Zinc in the form of mineral and metal often comes from the earth's crust. The average zinc content in the dry skin is about 70 mg, the maximum and minimum amount of zinc in the earth's crust is between 10 and 300 mg / kg. In some areas it is found to be much higher and higher in concentrations (5-15%), and such mineral soils are found more on the surface of the earth or at a little depth from the surface of the earth known as the mine.
Zinc metal in terms of its functional properties, including reactivity with iron, corrosion resistance, electrochemical properties, low melting point, fluidity, high capacity for surface treatment, strength, alloying, ductility, high tensile strength, nutrient uptake, healing and ... has found a variety of uses. When the metal is alloyed with 4% aluminum, its yield strength and hardness increase considerably. The electronegativity is due to its extensive use in dry batteries.
Zinc is brittle and crystalline at normal temperature, but it has the property of hammering and scrubbing at temperatures between 150-110 ° C. Its main sources are sulfide mine, zincblende or zincite sphalerite (zinc oxide), calamine (zinc silicate) and smithy sonite (zinc carbonate). Sulfide rock is heated to oxide and cooled to 1200 degrees Celsius. Then evaporated and extruded from the reaction chamber and molded into molds called the splitter. The zinc extraction method is obtained by burning and oxidizing zinc ores and reacting zinc oxide with coal or carbon by distillation of the metal. Zn has five stable isotopes in nature. Sixteen unstable isotopes are also known for zinc. This element has a semiconductor property and burns very hot in the air with red flames and toxic white clouds are emitted. The formatting ability of this element is high.
Sources and mines of Zinc:
Zn is found in many countries in the world and there are about 50 mines in the world. China, Australia, Peru, Europe and Canada are among the largest zinc mines. In nature, two elements of lead and zinc often come together. Nearly 70 percent of the lead is produced from lead-zinc ore minerals, which normally contains zinc in anhydrous than crude. Nearly 20% of lead production is associated with mixed minerals with a higher lead content and 10% of lead production in relation to copper minerals.
Lead and zinc minerals are often found in mixtures and deposits. The main deposits of these two metals are hydrothermal, epithermal, mesothermal and tetrameric. In zoological deposits, zinc is usually greater. Depending on the type of placement of lead in gaps and joints, accumulated groups in which the lead in the hydrothermal solution is converted into insoluble matter due to chemical interactions, and the gaps and gaps are accumulated, and the successor in which The lead ion in the hydrothermal solution is replaced by the metal ions in the surrounding rocks, and for example, it converts calcium or lime carbonate into lead carbonate.
The lead and zinc sulfides in the upper part of the deposits are affected by the weather, altered, and converted to the oxide minerals of this metal. It should be noted that the sphalerite is altered sooner than gallon. Trapped masses are commonly found in calcareous soils in areas where there are no hydrothermal streaks. At the site of these masses, recrystallization of calcite and dolomite is observed, and sometimes some of the gypsum and baritin are combined with ore, sometimes lime is slightly silica in these deposits. The tetrameric deposits are usually substitutions.
Zinc is commonly found in sulfide and most of the time comes from the source of hydrothermal fluids and sialic and cymful magmas. Sedimentary deposits are less important. Some of the deposits formed in carbonates have the properties of marine sediment deposits. Although in these deposits, it can be assumed that the metal is provided with a hydrothermal transfer of game magmas in this way. Mineral crystal is obtained from a hydrothermal solution in the form of pure zinc sulfide. Mineral marmaris is a complex combination of iron and zinc in the form of sulfide, which is found abundantly but rarely extracted. Because it is difficult to clean it.
Reservoirs close to the Earth's surface are often converted to oxide or carbonate, smaller zinc carbonate masses are known as silicate hydrates or hemimorphic mines. Iron and lead sulfides are found in the form of mineral pyrites and galena (mineral lead) in large masses, while other metals are rarely inorganic in nature. Mineral zinc is a metamorphic zinc oxide (changed state), such as Franklinite or Zinc catalyst, in small amounts and in limited locations.
Zinc utilized accumulations are found in various geological environments. These aggregates are geographically divided into the following segments according to the conditions of occurrence:
1. accumulated mass sulfurs from submarine eruptions in sedimentary rocks,
2. Cumulative stony deposits in carbonate rocks,
3. Crushed stones in sandstone,
4. Stomach cramps
5. Metamorphic accumulation
Processing and extraction of Zinc:
80 percent of the zinc mines are in the basement, 8 percent are open and the rest are combined with two open and underground forms. In terms of the production of zinc metal, 64% of underground mines, 12% of open pit mines and 15% of combined mines are obtained.
In the case of other metals, the metal production of the soil is rarely directly done directly from the soil, for the condensation process, the crushed mineral soil and then the separation of other metals are carried out, zinc concentrate is typically found in 55%, slightly lead, copper and Iron is formed. The concentration process is often carried out at the mine site to minimize shipping costs.
Use of zinc metal:
About 12 million tons of zinc per year are produced annually, more than half of this amount is consumed in the galvanizing industry, about 14 percent in zinc base alloys used in the die casting industry and 10 percent in rice and bronze production is used. Significant amounts of rolled zinc are consumed, including roofing, gutter, down pipe. The rest are consumed in compounds like zinc oxide and zinc sulfate; first-hand suppliers cover a wide range of uses.
The main uses of zinc metal include construction industry, transportation, food, electrical appliances and electronics.
There are also other coating methods that are used, such as zinc enriched colors, electrostatics, mechanical methods, these methods differ greatly from galvanizing and may not be suitable for some environments.
At present, 75% of the world's consumption is from minerals and mineral deposits and 25% from recycled sites, the amount of recycling is increasing every year, the amount of recycling depends entirely on the amount of products collected after consumption. More than 90% of these products are collected after consumption.
Zinc can be recyclable at all stages of production and consumption, for example zinc waste in the production of galvanized sheets, waste from production and installation processes, and at the end of life.
Zinc-coated steel and other zinc-based products have entered the recycled cycle because of their long service life after a long period of time, the durability of products containing zinc varies from 5 to 50 years in automotive and home appliances to over 100 years. In galvanized sheet (gable) changes. Street traffic lights that are covered with zinc can work for over 40 years.
During the last century, it has been increasing the life span of steel, the coating is the most economical way to increase the corrosion protection of steel, which annually eliminates about 4% of the gross domestic product of non-industrialized countries, galvanized steel has properties that No other material is provided. In addition to the properties mentioned, the electrochemical properties of the battery have led to its use. One of the most important and most recent uses of zinc metal and its modified alloys is the use of it in the manufacture of electronic devices such as cell phones, tablets and other items.
Zinc metal consumption:
Zinc in the manufacture of cement, dentition, construction of cobre, foaming, pottery, rubber products, automobile, kitchen appliances, steel sheeting (galvanizing), bronze and rice alloys, soldering, cans of toothpaste, metal glue, silver German and ... Zinc oxide and zinc sulfur are used as a white dye in the coloring and preparation of plastics, zinc sulfate in dyeing and making adhesive and zinc chloride in soldering and preventing wood corruption.
Anodes are used to prevent corrosion of the ship's body, drilling platforms and underwater pipelines. If the zinc is used to make zinc or rice plates, its aluminum size should not exceed 0,005%. The amount of tin in the top grade should not exceed 0.001%. The amount of aluminum in the PW type should not exceed 0.05%. Extreme electrochemical activity prevents cathodic corrosion in iron and steel products. Zinc blend with copper and the formation of rice alloys, which have characteristics such as low temperature use, corrosion protection and fine plastering.
Two other grades for zinc metal are accepted for galvanizing purposes. One is called Continious Galvanizing Grade, which has up to 35% lead and some aluminum. And the other is called Controlled Lead Grade, which has less than 18% lead and comes from aluminum.
One of the most important uses of zinc in various industries is the following:
• Zinc is used as part of battery tanks, cast iron molds and automotive industry.
• Zinc oxide is used as a white pigment in blue (ocean) and a variety of paintings.
• Zinc chloride is used as an antiseptic (body spray) and as a preservative for wood.
• Zinc sulfide is used in pig iron pigments to make clockwork and other objects that glow in the dark.
• Methyl on Zn (CH3) 2] is used in the synthesis of organic matter.
Calcium-based lotions are a mixture of carbonates and Silicate and Zn-hydroxy-Carbo silicates that are used to treat bouts of skin.
Zinc consumption in Iran and the World:
The perspective drawn by the International Study Group on Lead and Zinc on zinc is that global consumption of Zn by 4.4 percent to 10.43 million tons in the next two years, with a growth of 4.3 percent to 10.88 million tons in the next two years. The 2014-2018 period will increase. The main reason for this is increased consumption in the galvanized industry in China and investment in infrastructure projects such as the construction of new roads, railway lines and power transmission facilities, rapid development of housing and the automotive industry.
Due to easy access to raw materials (zinc ingots) for consumer industries in Iran, especially in the field of galvanizing and oxide production, its consumption has increased dramatically, according to the information received, domestic consumption has reached about 70 thousand tons this year.
The maximum amount of apparent consumption during these years (2014-2010) is 13 million tons. The apparent consumption of lead and zinc in the world during the years 2010 and 2011 has been fairly constant, and given the global production of these years, the relative balance between supply and demand has been established.
Compounds form an important part of the zinc industry. Zinc-based chemicals contain 12-15% of the world's consumption of dust. Zinc oxide is, to a lesser extent, the most important chemical product of zinc bacon. Manganese on zinc sulfate and zinc chloride are in the next category in terms of their importance and quantity. Other compounds are of secondary importance. For many years, global consumption of oxide and dust has stagnated, although demand for zinc sulfate and zinc chloride is increasing. The growth rate of consumption of zinc and zinc thiocarbonate is consistent with the production of abrasives (the largest use of these compounds). Zinc oxide, which has the highest demand, can be produced in a variety of processes. The purity and quality of zinc oxide depends on its production method. Zinc oxide with high purity is poured in powdered sediment rooms, where particles with different sizes are separated. This substance is commonly known as white. In the direct process (or the American process) raw material used, zinc or zinc ore products that always contain lead.
A carbon material is heated to the raw material, which is recovered as a result of the reduction of zinc in the form of steam. It is oxidized in air and divided into particles of different sizes.
The main zinc compounds are: Hydride (ZnH2), Oxide (ZnO) and Chloride (ZnCl2). Also, this metal has many alloys, including rice, nickel silver, commercial bronze, tin solders, soldered aluminum. High-quality zinc is used to produce molds that are used for automotive, electrical, and hardware applications. A zinc alloys called Prestucts include 78 percent zinc and 22 percent aluminum, most used in steel and molding plastics. This alloy is also used for ceramic and cement molding.
Zinc is also used to prevent corrosion to plating metals such as iron. Zinc oxide is a useful metal in the modern world, which is widely used for the industries and the manufacture of paints, rubber products, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries, floor coverings, plastics, fabric printing, soap making, storage of batteries, textiles, electrical equipment and other products. . Lithopone is a combination of zinc sulfide and barium sulfate that is used to produce materials and pigments.
Zinc sulfide is used to make bright and radiant plates, X-ray plates and TVs and fluorescence lights. Chlorine and zinc chromate compounds are used for important compounds. It is an essential element for the growth of animals and plants.
The raw material is for wet chemical processes of purified zinc solutions. The carbonate or zinc hydroxide is deposited and then filtered, washed, dried and powdered at 800 ° C.
Various types of zinc oxide are used as intermediates in the production of other chemicals. Oxide oxide is deposited, which does not have droplet properties, and special grades such as fine zinc oxides used in photocopying papers. The most important application of zinc oxide in the abrasive industry, which is used in the industry as a hardening agent and sometimes as a filter.
Zinc oxide is used as a dye in solution latex paints. Application of this material in agriculture as a fertilizer enhancer to reduce soil deficiency is less important. Zinc oxide is a part of the formulation in the glass industry, glaze and ceramics. It affects the melting point, optical properties and elasticity, as well as the color and polish of the glass. Zinc oxide is one of the ingredients for powdered facials, lips and creams that are used in the cosmetics industry.
It is also used as an additive to oil, adhesives, drying agents, non-transparent agents and as a catalyst in methanol synthesis.
The role of zinc metal in human health:
It is a very natural and natural substance. Many foods have a certain amount. Drinking water also contains a certain amount of zinc, and when it is stored in metal tanks, its amount will increase. Industrial sources or poisonous waste places some zinc into drinking water and may reach a level that causes the disease.
It is one of the rare elements that is vital for human health. When zinc is low in the human body, it causes anorexia, a decrease in the sense of taste and smell, and the healing of ulcers and skin discomfort. Zinc deficiency can even cause congenital defects.
Although the human body can tolerate relatively high amounts of zinc, high levels of zinc cause diseases such as soreness, skin irritation, vomiting, nausea and anemia. Excessive zinc suppression affects the pancreas and disrupts the metabolism of proteins and causes scarring. Exposure to zinc chloride causes respiratory disturbances for a long time. In the workplace, release causes flu-like complications that are known as the Fever of Fever. This condition is lost after two days and is caused by excessive sensitivity. Zinc is dangerous for embryos and infants. When the mother consumes a lot of food, the baby or baby is affected by blood or breast milk.
The most commonly used zinc sulfate is zinc. This arrangement has the lowest price than other forms. But at least it absorbs and causes stomach upset. Your doctor usually prescribes 220 mg of zinc sulfate containing approximately 55 mg of zinc. The more accessible forms that are available are zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, zinc acetate, zinc zinc and monostean.
Different forms of zinc are different in composition. In the labels of these compounds, always look for the amount of zinc. Usually, zinc compounds contain 30 to 50 mg zinc. Keep in mind that you are absorbing about 10-15 mg of daily food from your daily diet, your doctor will need to take this daily intake of meals at the time you apply zinc supplements. Zinc packs are available in pharmacies and groceries and are useful for treating colds. Wheat germ is a good source of zinc, which is recommended for everyone.
The most important side effect (negative) is known from its effect on reducing HDL (good body cholesterol) and increased LDL (harmful to the body's cholesterol). Some studies indicate that excessive consumption can reduce immune function, while other studies do not confirm this. If zinc sulfate stimulates the stomach, take another form of zinc, such as zinc citrate, and consult your doctor before. Other side effects of zinc poisoning include dizziness, headache, drowsiness, sweating, muscle imbalance, alcohol intolerance, hallucinations and anemia.
Because zinc interferes with other elements, you can consult a multivitamin, or blood components that contain zinc, iron, and your doctor. Use folate. This will help you keep the amount of elements in a balance. The high consumption of zinc can interfere with the absorption of copper and cause copper deficiency. This affects the amount of iron in the body and can lead to anemia.
The amount of daily human body needs. The studies show that women need this essential element of daily care, at least 10 mg, and that men need daily, at least 12 mg. It is often seen that the amount consumed is much lower than the amount required.
The German Nutrition Center (DGE) and the United States (RDA) recommend that women receive 12 mg per day and 15 mg zinc per day to prevent zinc deficiency. Of course, the dosage and amount of treatment given by Verbacher is between 100 mg and 20 mg per day. Generally, the daily dose is 15 mg per day.
The daily dose is about 50 mg. Zinc supply is a very good, tolerable and well-absorbed zinc gluconate compound. Remember that all supplements containing zinc should be taken with food to prevent nausea. Note that people who have been taking 50 to 300 mg per day for a long time can have an impairment of iron and magnesium absorption, as well as a deficiency of these two salts in the body. It has also been seen that those who have been ingested for 2 grams a day have shown signs of vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain and fever. People with liver and intestinal disorders should consult their physician before using zinc supplements.
The role of zinc in skin diseases:
Zinc concentrations in the skin and the eye have been seen to be greater than any organ and organ in the body. Zinc intakes in burns, surgeries, and wound healing are essential. Zinc improves wounds as soon as possible and shortens wound healing, especially in diabetic patients, foot ulcers and infection of these wounds, which can even lead to amputation.
Therefore, the presence of zinc is very important in the diet of these people. Zinc intake for burns is high, and in the blood of patients with burns, zinc deficiency is observed and, by giving extra care, can be used to heal and repair wounds and skin. This issue has been proven even in grade 3 burns following the use of solutions and zinc-containing compounds.
Food source containing zinc metal:
We absorb 20 to 40 percent of the amount of zinc in the food. Foods like red meat, fish, chicken and turkey are the most readily available form on the absorbent. Zinc available in less vegetables is available to our bodies and vegetable fiber alone reduces the amount of zinc that is absorbed and used. Dairy and egg products are relatively good on zinc, but zinc adsorption is more difficult.
There are many foods and spices that contain zinc metal. Among the following foods, the best available source is:
Oysters (the richest source), red meat, shrimp, crabs and other shellfish. Other sources that are less absorbable include beans, black peas, soybeans, peanuts, whole grains, fiber, tofu, beer yeast, cooked vegetables, mushrooms, green beans and pumpkin seeds.